duchy of florence

After a period under Lombard rule, the duchy of Tuscia, which covered Tuscany, Umbria, much of Lazio and Corsica, fell under the control of the Holy Roman Empire, created in 800 when Charlemagne was crowned by the pope in Rome. The fortunes of the Medici were directly tied to the Tuscan economy.[19]. Etruria lasted less than a decade. [3], Initially, Tuscany was ruled by the House of Medici until the extinction of its senior branch in 1737. Region of Pisa 1. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was a central Italian monarchy that existed from 1569 to 1801 and from 1815 to 1859, with Florence serving as its capital. Region of Livorno 1. [1], Florence had been under informal Medici control since 1434. [16] Ferdinando sponsored a Tuscan colony in America, with the intention of establishing a Tuscan settlement in the area of what is now French Guiana. The second Duke, Cosimo I, established a strong Florentine navy and expanded his territory, purchasing Elba and conquering Siena. For more than a century the artisans and labourers of Renaissance Florence turned the city into their own 'empire' during times of public festivity. Tuscany during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; House of Commons, John Bowring, 1839, p 6, Austria and Spain were ruled by the House of Habsburg; the two are interchangeable terms for the time period in question, Mora, G. (1959) Vincenzo Chiarugi (1759–1820) and his psychiatric reform in Florence in the late 18th century (on the occasion of the bi-centenary of his birth), Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Francesco Maria de' Medici, Duke of Rovere and Montefeltro, Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici, Electress Palatine, "COSIMO III de' Medici, granduca di Toscana in "Dizionario Biografico, "Leopold II (holy Roman emperor) -- Encyclopædia Britannica", Bandiere degli Stati italiani preunitari: Toscana, "Leopold II (grand duke of Tuscany) -- Encyclopædia Britannica", Parliamentary papers, Volume 16 By the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In December 1859, the Grand Duchy was joined to the Duchies of Modena and Parma to form the United Provinces of Central Italy, which were annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia a few months later. When the new Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed in 1861 Florence was chosen as the seat of government and remained such till 1871. Capital duchy bonus: All holdings directly owned by the duke-tier character, inside every de jure province located in the capital duchy (excluding the capital county itself), recieve +25% levy bonus if the duke (or equivalent) is independent, or +15% if the duke is a vassal. Tuscany was neutral during the War of the Spanish Succession, partly due to Tuscany's ramshackle military; a 1718 military review revealed that the army numbered less than 3,000 men, many of whom were infirm and elderly. This applies both to Florence, the capital of the Grand Duchy, and to smaller towns such as Siena, where the area chosen for accommodation was located near the Piazza del Campo, 12 or in Lucca, where hotels were all located within the city walls. She and her court left on 10 December. Pope Clement VII, himself a Medici, appointed his relative Alessandro de' Medici as Duke of the Florentine Republic, thereby transforming the Republic of Florence into a hereditary monarchy. Region of Prato 1. [51] On 12 August 1530, the Emperor created the Medici hereditary rulers (capo) of the Republic of Florence. It formally created a hereditary monarchy, abolished the age-old signoria (elective government) and the office of gonfaloniere (titular ruler of Florence elected for a two-month term); in their place was the consigliere, a four-man council elected for a three-month term, headed by the "Duke of the Florentine Republic" (and later the Grand Duke of Tuscany). Don Carlos became King of Naples shortly after his arrival in Florence in 1735, by the Treaty of Turin. Florence became a duchy in 1532 and the Grand Duchy of Tuscany in 1569. Tuscany was formally annexed to Sardinia in 1860, as a part of the unification of Italy, following a landslide referendum, in which 95% of voters approved. In the 19th century the population of the Grand Duchy was about 1,815,000 inhabitants. Cosimo I died in 1574 of apoplexy, leaving a stable and extremely prosperous Tuscany behind him, having been the longest ruling Medici yet. While he was in a service in the cathedral one day, he was distracted by a bronze lamp hanging from the ceiling. Ferdinand aligned Tuscany with Austria.[49]. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor proclaimed Alessandro de' Medici, ruler of Florence "for his lifetime, and after his death to be succeeded by his sons, male heirs and successors, of his body, by order of primogeniture, and failing them by the closest male of the Medici family, and likewise in succession forever, by order of primogeniture. In the 19th century the population of the Grand Duchy was about 1,815,000 inhabitants. The duchy was founded after Emperor Charles V restored Medici rule to Florence in 1530. Following the Republic's surrender in the Siege of Florence, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor issued a proclamation explicitly stating that he and he alone could determine the government of Florence. [17] Cosimo commissioned the architect Vasari to build the Uffizi, as offices for the Medici bank, continuing the Medici tradition of patronage of the arts. By the Treaty of Fontainebleau (27 October 1807), Etruria was to be annexed by France. [13], Francesco had little interest in governing his realm, instead participating in scientific experiments. [5] The title "duke of Florence" was chosen because it would bolster Medici power in the region. They reverted to the crown with the ascension of Gian Gastone. He was unpopular among his subjects, though his many reforms brought the Grand Duchy to a level of stability that had not been seen in quite a while. Region of Pistoia Tuscany also has the Capital District of F… Like his uncle, Francesco I, government held no appeal for him, and Tuscany was ruled by his ministers. 1. The Duchy of Florence was an Italian principality that was centred on the city of Florence, in Tuscany, Italy He was the son of Giovanni dalle Bande Nere and Maria Salviati, from a side branch of the Medici family, and… [16] Ferdinando was forced to marry his heir, Cosimo, to Archduchess Maria Maddalena of Austria to assuage Spain (where Maria Maddalena's sister was the incumbent Queen consort). During the Holy League of 1571, Cosimo fought against the Ottoman Empire, siding with the Holy Roman Empire. [47][48], The Napoleonic system collapsed in 1814, and the following territorial settlement, the Congress of Vienna, ceded the State of Presidi to a restored Tuscany. He revamped the taxation and tariff system. Much to their dismay, the Emperor rejected their appeal. On 30 November 1786, after having de facto blocked capital executions (the last was in 1769), Leopold promulgated the reform of the penal code that abolished the death penalty and ordered the destruction of all the instruments for capital execution in his land. [21] Cosimo II's twelve-year reign was punctuated by his contented marriage with Maria Maddalena and his patronage of astronomer Galileo Galilei. [53] To be eligible, one had to be male and a noble. When it was released, the lamp oscillated back and forward gradually with decreasing amplitude. Cosimo III was succeeded by his son, Gian Gastone, who, for most of his life, kept to his bed and acted in an unregal manner, rarely appearing to his subjects, to the extent that, at times, he had been thought dead. In 1605, Ferdinando succeeded in getting his candidate, Alessandro de' Medici, elected as Pope Leo XI. Siena was ruled by a governor appointed by the grand duke. [49] Despite his merits, most his subjects still dismissed him as a foreigner. During the War of the League of Cognac, the Florentines rebelled against the Medici, then represented by Ippolito de' Medici, and restored the freedom of their republic. Gian Gastone would repeal his father's puritan laws. Republic of Florence 4. He died at Innsbruck from a stroke in 1765; his wife pledged the rest of her life to mourning him, while co-ruling with her son, and Francis' imperial successor Joseph II. [8] Cosimo also was a long-term supporter of Pope Pius V, who in the light of Florence's expansion in August 1569 declared Cosimo Grand Duke of Tuscany, a title unprecedented in Italy. Under him, Tuscany was ruled by a viceroy, Marc de Beauvau-Craon, Prince de Craon. He was restored the same year by Austrian troops. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence. [23], Ferdinando was obsessed with new technology, and had several hygrometers, barometers, thermometers, and telescopes installed in the Pitti. [10] Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor and his cousin King Philip II of Spain reacted quite angrily, as Florence was an Imperial fief and declared Pius V's actions invalid. [45] His second son Ferdinand became ruler of the Grand Duchy. Ferdinando, despite no longer being a cardinal, exercised much influence at successive Papal conclaves; elections which chose the Pope, the head of the Catholic Church. His wife, Eleanor of Toledo, died in 1562, along with four of his children due to a plague epidemic in Florence. [2][3] Following the Republic's surrender in the Siege of Florence, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor issued a proclamation explicitly stating that he and he alone could determine the government of Florence. Reggion of Grosseto 1. Ferdinand IV's hypothetical reign didn't last long; the House of Habsburg-Lorraine was formally deposed by the National Assembly on 16 August 1859.[49]. Ruling house of the Duchy of Florence 1533–69 Elevated to Grand Dukes of Tuscany: New title. Elevated from Duchy of Florence. [33] The once powerful navy was reduced to a pitiful state.[34]. [24] In 1657, Leopoldo de' Medici, the Grand Duke's youngest brother, established the Accademia del Cimento, which set up to attract scientists from all over Tuscany to Florence for mutual study. The grand duke Leopold II agreed to ratify a liberal constitution in 1848. Christina dominated her grandson long after he came of age until her death in 1636. Tuscany was ruled by the House of Medici and thrived bearing witness to unprecedented economic and military success under Cosimo I and his sons. Francis Stephen altered the laws of succession in 1763, when he declared his second son, Leopold, heir to the grand duchy. Despite all of these incentives to economic growth and prosperity, the population of Florence, at dawn of the 17th century, was a mere 75,000 souls, far smaller than the other capitals of Italy: Rome, Milan, Venice, Palermo and Naples. Francis had to cede his ancestral Duchy of Lorraine in order to accommodate the deposed ruler of Poland, whose daughter Marie Leszczyńska became Queen of France and of Navarre in 1725. Tuscany was governed by a viceroy, Marc de Beauvau-Craon, for his entire rule. On 30 May 1808, Etruria was formally annexed to France. The first official mention of the republic was in 1138, when several cities around Tuscany formed a league against Henry X of Bavaria. Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. Are: 1 Leopold to return once more portion of the Duchy about! Bureaucracy duchy of florence administration of Countess Matilda Canossa, the Duchy of Tuscany was overcome with orders! Emperor rejected their appeal independence from Great Britain fighting in opposition to the Spanish reaction was construct...: new title was finally dissolved upon its annexation to the Spanish.. 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