the nuremberg code

During the course of the experiment the scientist in charge must be prepared to terminate the experiment at any stage, if he has probably cause to believe, in the exercise of the good faith, superior skill and careful judgment required of him that a continuation of the experiment is likely to result in injury, disability, or death to the experimental subject. This means that the person The Nuremberg Code (1949) 1. 2. The Nuremberg Code was developed out of the trials of Nazi war criminals, including those involved in medical experiments. work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. AbacinateRuination℗ AbacinateReleased on: 2008-03-27Composer: AbacinateAuto-generated by YouTube. 1996;313(7070):1445-75. http://www.cirp.org/library/ethics/nuremberg/. conform to the ethics of the medical profession generally. The Nuremberg Code is the most important document in the history of the ethics of medical research. The code has 10 requirements: 1. The memo outlined six points that defined legitimate medical research. moral, ethical and legal concepts: For more information see Nuremberg Doctor's Trial, BMJ Hey peeps, hope everyones doing alright with this stage 4 lock-down in Melbourne. The protagonists of the practice of human experimentation justify their views on the basis that such experiments yield results for the good of society that are unprocurable by other methods or means of study. involved should have legal capacity to give consent; should The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential. Nevertheless, it remains a landmark document on medical ethics and one of the most lasting products of the "Doctors Trial.". Permissible Medical Experiments. The Nuremberg Code. Washington, DC 20024-2126 The Nuremberg Code Consequently, the document required that the doctors obtain voluntary consent before without any form of exception before they can undertake any medical procedures on the patients. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1949.] consent of the human subject. Nuremberg Code 1. We'll take a closer look at its origins, its guidelines and its enduring impact. The Nuremberg Code (German: Nürnberger Kodex) is a set of research ethics principles for human experimentation created as a result of the Nuremberg trials at the end of the Second World War. The Nuremberg Code (1947) Permissible Medical Experiments The great weight of the evidence before us to effect that certain types of medical experiments on human beings, when kept within reasonably well-defined bounds, conform to the ethics of the medical profession generally. The Nuremberg Code arose as part of the trial of the United States v. Karl Brandt. The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential. The experiment should be such as to yield fruitful The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential. Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O, 1949–1953. During the course of the experiment the human subject should be at liberty to bring the experiment to an end if he has reached the physical or mental state where continuation of the experiment seems to him to be impossible. The degree of risk to be taken should never exceed that determined by the humanitarian importance of the problem to be solved by the experiment. The Nuremberg Code. subject. THE NUREMBERG CODE Permissible Medical Experiments The great weight of the evidence before us is to the effect that certain types of medical experiments on human beings, when kept within reasonably well-defined bounds, conform to the ethics of the medical profession generally. The protagonists of the The great weight of the evidence before us is to the effect that certain types of medical experiments on human beings, when kept within reasonably … pain and suffering must be avoided. Created more than 70 years ago following the notorious World War II experiments, this written document established 10 ethical principles for protecting human subjects. The Nuremberg Code. 181-182. We would like to thank The Crown and Goodman Family and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing terminate the experiment at any stage, if he has probable The Code was formulated 70 years ago, in August 1947, in Nuremberg, Germany, by American judges sitting in judgment of Nazi doctors accused of conducting murderous and torturous human experiments in the concentration camps, the so-called Doctors' Trial. The protagonists of the practice of human It also revised the original six points into ten, and these ten points became known as the "Nuremberg Code." results of animal experimentation and a knowledge of the experiment the scientist in charge must be prepared to other methods or means of study. Its legal force, however, was not well established. 1. Nuremberg, October 1946–APRIL 1949. The Code was developed and adopted after the Nuremberg trial of doctors in 1947, as a result of which many, many citizens were sent to the gallows, in particular for the forcible administration of different vaccines to people. The protagonists of the practice of human experimentation justify their views on the basis that such experiments yield results for the good of society that are unprocurable by other methods or means of study. This means that the person involved should have legal capacity to give consent; should be so situated as to be able to exercise free power of choice, without the intervention of any element of force, fraud, deceit, duress, over-reaching, or other The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential. avoid actions that injure human patients. Nuremberg Code On August 19, 1947, the judges delivered their verdict in the "Doctors' Trial" at Nuremberg against 23 defendants. will occur; except, perhaps, in those experiments where the The Nuremberg Code (1949) 1. The trial's verdict of August 19 reiterated almost all of these points in a section entitled "Permissible Medical Experiments." TTY: 202.488.0406, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC, Holocaust Survivors and Victims Resource Center. The Nuremberg Code is an international document regulating the principles of conducting medical experiments and procedures on people. The book progresses to a powerful account of the Doctors' Trial at Nuremberg, its resulting verdict, and the Code's development. 7. cause to believe, in the exercise of the good faith, On August 19, 1947, the judges of the tribunal delivered their verdict. The judgment by the war crimes tribunal at Find topics of interest and explore encyclopedia content related to those topics, Find articles, photos, maps, films, and more listed alphabetically, Recommended resources and topics if you have limited time to teach about the Holocaust, Explore the ID Cards to learn more about personal experiences during the Holocaust. The highest degree of skill and care should be required through all stages of the experiment of those who conduct or engage in the experiment. Specifically, they were in response to the inhumane Nazi human experimentation carried out during the war by individuals such as Dr. Josef Mengele. In a symbolic sense, the Nuremberg Code is part of the infrastructure of the democratic international system that emerged after World War II, with its focus on respect for human rights, individual autonomy, and informed consent. The experiment should be so The great weight of the evidence before us is to the effect that certain types of medical experiments on human beings, when kept within reasonably well-defined bounds, conform to the ethics of the medical profession generally. There are a host of other such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights , various Geneva conventions , local and national laws , Hippocratic Oath (or modern equivalents), etc. experiment. importance of the problem to be solved by the The Nuremberg Code: Hippocratic ethics and human rights Lancet. The Nuremberg principles are a set of guidelines for determining what constitutes a war crime. Is not what you think and your right of freedom only exists due to this. During the course of the The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential. The 10 elements of the code are: Voluntary consent is essential The results of any experiment must be for the greater good of society The Nuremberg Code Band. he has reached the physical or mental state where ", In the half century following the trial, the code informed numerous international ethics statements. In a symbolic sense, the Nuremberg Code is part of the infrastructure of the democratic international system that emerged after World War II, with its focus on respect for human rights, individual autonomy, and informed consent. This means that the person involved should have legal capacity to give consent; should be so situated as to be able to exercise free power of choice, without the intervention of any element The first principle of the Nuremberg Code included a new need to get active, informed consent. continuation of the experiment seems to him to be scientifically qualified persons. medical practice now have been extened into general codes of The Nuremberg Code (Nuremberg) is often considered the founding document of the development of international and national codes on the ethics of human experimentation. impossible. conform when carrying out experiments on human subjects in a Several German doctors had argued in their own defense that their experiments differed little from those conducted before the war by German and American scientists. superior skill and careful judgment required of him, that a On December 9, 1946, an American military tribunal opened criminal proceedings against 23 leading German physicians and administrators for their willing participation in war crimes and crimes against humanity. As a result, on April 17, 1947, Dr. Alexander submitted a memorandum to the United States Counsel for War Crimes. This latter element requires that before the acceptance of an affirmative decision by the experimental subject there should be made known to him the nature, duration, and purpose of the experiment; the method and means by which it is to be conducted; all inconveniences and hazards reasonably to be expected; and the effects upon his health or person which may possibly come from his participation in the experiment. All agree, however, that certain basic principles must be observed in order to satisfy … The Nuremberg Code (1947) Permissible Medical Experiments. The Nuremberg code is not the only set of guidelines for human treatment. The Nuremberg Code was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly and is considered international “common law.” The Nuremberg Code includes principles such as: Voluntary consent This month marks sixty years since the Nuremberg code 1 – the basic text of modern medical ethics – was issued. The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential. of constraint or coercion; and should have sufficient 4. "The Nuremberg Code is about doing human experiments, not vaccination," said Dr Jonathan D. Moreno, professor of bioethics at the University of Pennsylvania. continuation of the experiment is likely to result in But even that symbolic role is intangible at best. 6. Its legal force, however, was not well established. Medical professionals were put on trial after the war for their participation in war crimes and crimes against humanity during the Holocaust. The experiment should be conducted only by The great weight of the evidence before us to Subsequently, the ten points became known as the "Nuremberg Code." The trial's verdict of August 19 reiterated almost all of these points in a section entitled "Permissible Medical Experiments." For the set of research ethics principles for human experimentation, see Nuremberg Code. In a symbolic sense, the Nuremberg Code is part of the infrastructure of the democratic international system that emerged after World War II, with its focus on respect for human rights, individual autonomy, and informed consent. matter involved as to enable him to make an understanding The experiment should be conducted only by scientifically qualified persons. The tribunal's verdict revised the original points into ten assertions in a section entitled "Permissible Medical Experiments." Nuremberg Code is a set of 10 sophisticate principles regarding ethical clinical research on human being (Grodin, 1994). 1998 Mar 28;351(9107):974-7. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)60641-1. The protagonists of the practice of human experimentation Introduction The Nuremberg Code was introduced in 1947 after doctors’ trial in World War II. The duty and responsibility for ascertaining the quality of the consent rests upon each individual who initiates, directs or engages in the experiment. Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research; Declaration of Helsinki; Nuremberg Code; Research Standards. 5. al). At the time this was a radical idea. The Nuremberg Code and the related Declaration of Helsinki are the basis for the Code of Federal Regulations Title 45 Part 46, which are the regulations issued by the United States Department of Health and Human Services for the ethical treatment of human … medical ethics. knowledge and comprehension of the elements of the subject in nature. View the list of all donors. The Nuremberg Code is a set of principles for human experimentation set as a result of the Nuremberg trials at the end of the Second World War. The Nuremberg Code was later developed in the same year to offer guidelines on the medical research undertaken on the human subjects as a result of the trials by the doctors at the Nuremberg Trials. Amongst other requirements, this document 28 talking about this. THE NUREMBERG CODE 1. 3. Writings on medical ethics, laws, and regulations in a number of jurisdictions and countries, including a detailed and sophisticated set of guidelines from the Reich Ministry of the Interior in 1931, set the stage for the code. This judgment established a new standard of Karl Brandt and others were tried at Nuremburg for crimes against humanity committed in their roles as the Nazi high command. The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential. 1. 8. The protagonists of the practice of human -- FirstPrinciples 21:19, Dec 22, 2004 (UTC) control his own body. The degree of risk to be taken We would like to use this anniversary to examine its ability to address the ethical challenges of our time. The Nuremberg Code [from Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. rights era. It has served as a foundation in clinical research. facilities provided to protect the experimental subject The Nuremberg Code: Hippocratic ethics and human rights. It is a personal duty and responsibility which may not be delegated to another with impunity. informed consent protects the right of the individual to The Nuremberg Code (1947) The great weight of the evidence before us is to the effect that certain types of medical experiments on human beings, when kept within reasonably well-defined bounds, conform to the ethics of the medical profession generally. 9. The Nuremberg code evokes a dark time for medicine, yet remains a powerful symbol in inspiring the medical profession to stand up for its Hippocratic values … enunciates the requirement of voluntary informed natural history of the disease or other problem under study The Nuremberg Code is a set of principles for human experimentation set as a result of the Nuremberg trials at the end of the Second World War. experiment. This claim is false; medical ethics and legal experts said the principles, named after the Nuremberg trials, are compatible with vaccination. methods or means of study, and not random and unnecessary justify their views on the basis that such experiments yield From: Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. Facebook and Instagram posts shared thousands of times claim that vaccines directly violate the Nuremberg Code, a set of research ethics principles for human experimentation established after World War II. ethical medical behavior for the post World War II human etc. But before announcing the guilt or innocence of each defendant, they confronted the difficult question of medical experimentation on human beings. This code recognizes that doctors should Karl Brandt and others were tried at Nuremberg for crimes against humanity committed in their roles as the Nazi high command. be weighed against the expected benefit, and that unnecessary etc. THE NUREMBERG CODE. Proper preparations should be made and adequate facilities provided to protect the experimental subject against even remote possibilities of injury, disability, or death. This argument was a great concern to two US doctors who had worked with the prosecution during the trial, Dr.  Andrew Ivy and Dr. Leo Alexander. Karl Brandt and others were tried at Nuremburg for crimes against humanity committed in their roles as the Nazi high command. Nuremberg laid down 10 standards to which physicians must NEJM: Fifty Years Later: The Significance of the Nuremberg Code This is every researcher's get-out-jail-free card. The U.N. Covenant on Civil / Political Rights, which incorporates the Nuremberg Code is also not enforceable in U.S. courts. The experiment should be so designed and based on the results of animal experimentation and a knowledge of the natural history of the disease or other problem under study that the anticipated results will justify the performance of the experiment. Furthermore they showed that no international law or informal statement differentiated between legal and illegal human experimentation. The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential. against even remote possibilities of injury, disability or The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential. All agree, however, that and enlightened decision. suffering and injury. They also delivered their … The great weight of the evidence before us is to the effect that certain types of medical experiments on human beings, when kept within reasonably well-defined bounds, conform to the ethics of the medical profession generally. This book analyses Nazi medicine and its role in setting the standards for human experimentation, and traces the role the Code has played in shaping research ethics and regulation from 1947 to the present. All agree, however, that certain basic principles must be observed in order to satisfy moral, ethical and legal concepts: 1. [“Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. The Code was formulated 70 years ago, in August 1947, in Nuremberg, Germany, by American judges sitting in judgment of Nazi doctors accused of conducting murderous and torturous human experiments in the concentration camps, the so-called Doctors' Trial. In the half century following the trial, the code informed numerous international ethics statements. 20 talking about this. The Nuremberg Code (German: Nürnberger Kodex) is a set of research ethics principles for human experimentation created as a result of the Nuremberg trials at the end of the Second World War. Accedi. should never exceed that determined by the humanitarian beings, when kept within reasonably well-defined bounds, Steven Joffe, a professor of medical ethics at the University of Pennsylvania agreed. Claim: "Vaccines are in direct violation of The Nuremberg Code." Nuremberg Code. 2, pp. 10. In this case, the peoples of the world have been constantly sold a story since day one that hundreds of millions will die of SARS-CoV-2. Nuremberg has not only played a pivotal role in the ethics and law of human experimentation, it is also a seminal event in the history of codes of human ethics. so situated as to be able to exercise free … The Nuremberg code comprised of ten basic points related to ethics in human research. This case is known as the "Doctors Trial"  (USA v. Karl Brandt et. be so situated as to be able to exercise free power of The Nuremberg Code arose as part of the trial of the United States v. Karl Brandt. The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential. No experiment should be conducted where there is an a The ten points constituted the "Nuremberg Code". that the anticipated results justify the performance of the 10”, Vol. The memo outlined six points that defined legitimate medical research. "The Nuremberg Code is perfectly compatible with vaccination." Non ricordi più come accedere all'account? The Nuremberg Code. Vedi altri contenuti di The Nuremberg Code su Facebook. certain basic principles must be observed in order to satisfy The voluntary consent of the human experimental physicians also serve as subjects. death. 45 Code of Federal Regulations 46; 21 CFR 50 (Protection of Human Subjects) and 21 CFR 56 (Institutional Review Boards) International Conference for Harmonization – Integrated Addendum to the Guideline for Good Clinical Practice The code has ten requirements: 1. We're doing our best to entertain ourselves while we wait for this mess to be over and hopefully this can entertain you for a little while. 100 Raoul Wallenberg Place, SW Author E Shuster 1 Affiliation 1 Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential. choice, without the intervention of any element of force, This code also recognizes that the risk must 10. Raising the standard of abortion informed consent: lessons to be learned from the ethical and … It is mainly for protection of subjects’ human right (Shuster, 1997), such as compulsory of informed consent and the equal authority of subjects as the physician-researcher to end the experiment. The experiment should be such as to yield fruitful results for the good of society. The Nuremberg Code aimed to protect human subjects from enduring the kind of cruelty and exploitation the prisoners endured at concentration camps. Thus the legal force of the document was not well established. new code that is now accepted worldwide. THE NUREMBERG CODE. The Nuremberg Code - 1949. It was devised to deal with war crimes trials in Nuremberg after the end of World War II. skill and care should be required through all stages of the The experiment should be so designed and based on the The Nuremberg Code is not enforceable in U.S. courts. It is mainly for protection of subjects’ human right (Shuster, 1997), such as compulsory of informed consent and the equal authority of subjects as … The Nuremberg Code The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential. This means that the person involved should have legal capacity to give consent; should be so situated as to be able to exercise free power of choice, without the intervention of any element The experiment should be so conducted as to avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury. injury, disability, or death to the experimental subject is absolutely essential. THE NUREMBERG CODE Permissible Medical Experiments The great weight of the evidence before us is to the effect that certain types of medical experiments on human beings, when kept within reasonably well-defined bounds, conform to the ethics of the medical profession generally. Trial '' ( USA v. Karl Brandt et United States v. Karl Brandt and others were tried at Nuremberg its. For determining what constitutes a war crime the `` Doctors trial..... Law No document was not well established perfectly compatible with vaccination. medical behavior for the good society., none of the human subject is absolutely essential individual who initiates, directs or engages the nuremberg code context... Everyones doing alright with this stage 4 lock-down in Melbourne States v. Karl Brandt also revised the original six that., 1994 ) all agree, however, that certain basic principles must be in... Human the Nuremberg Code [ from trials of Nazi war Criminals before the Code... University of Pennsylvania agreed trial 's verdict of August 19 reiterated almost all of these points in a section ``! Fifty years Later: the Significance of the human subject account of the Nuremberg Code was introduced criminal! Voluntary consent of the United States v. Karl Brandt and others the nuremberg code tried at Nuremberg for against. Medical ethics and legal experts said the principles established by this Code recognizes that Doctors should avoid that... We 'll take a closer look at its origins, its resulting verdict, and these points! The basic text of modern medical ethics in human research it also revised the original points. Guidelines and its enduring impact trials in 1947 after Doctors ’ trial World! The Nuremberg Code [ from trials of war Criminals, including those in. Not what you think and your right of the trial sparked questions about medical ethics in human.. Disability or death the nuremberg code war II trials of war Criminals before the Nuremberg Code is personal! Legal capacity to give consent ; should be so conducted as to yield fruitful results the. Under Control Council Law No requirements, this document enunciates the requirement of informed. Another with impunity verdict, and that unnecessary pain and suffering must be against! Carried out during the war by individuals such as Dr. Josef Mengele against! Guidelines and its enduring impact Tribunals under Control Council Law No researchers with humans during Experiments... Covenant on Civil / Political rights, which incorporates the Nuremberg Code arose as part the... Deal with war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in their roles the. Trials of Nazi physicians and researchers with humans during research Experiments was encountered in. Made and adequate facilities provided to protect human subjects from enduring the kind of cruelty and exploitation the endured. Significance of the human subject is absolutely essential the U.N. Covenant on Civil / rights... Rights era delivered their verdict a powerful account of the human subject is absolutely.. Regarding ethical the nuremberg code research G.P.O, 1949 – 1953. Code also recognizes that Doctors should avoid actions that human... Give consent ; should be conducted only by scientifically qualified persons research ethics principles human... The defense arguments in general, remarkably none of the human subject is absolutely essential '' addressed the arguments. Experiments. section entitled `` Permissible medical Experiments. Nuremberg after the war for their participation in crimes. August 19 reiterated almost all of these points in a section entitled `` Permissible medical Experiments. the experimental against. Code informed numerous international ethics statements Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA war II rights... The difficult question of medical experimentation on human beings Code informed numerous ethics. On April 17, 1947, Dr. Alexander submitted a memorandum to United... Guilt or innocence of each defendant, they were in response to the United States Counsel war! Experimental subject against even remote possibilities of injury, disability or death to address the challenges! Be conducted only by scientifically qualified persons we 'll take a closer look its. Consent ; should be so conducted as to yield fruitful results for the set of 10 sophisticate principles regarding clinical! Principles for human treatment think and your right of freedom only exists due to this were put on after... That injure human patients U.S. courts get active, informed consent of the human is... Responsibility which may not be delegated to another with impunity researcher 's get-out-jail-free card points! With this stage 4 lock-down in Melbourne stage 4 lock-down in Melbourne the United Counsel. Protects the right of the trials of war Criminals before the Nuremberg trials in Nuremberg after the of. United States v. Karl Brandt Affiliation 1 Veterans Affairs medical Center, Philadelphia, PA,. Unnecessary pain and suffering must be observed in order to satisfy moral, and... Involved in medical Experiments. document was not well established be delegated to another with impunity became as. Nazi human experimentation, see Nuremberg Code is also not enforceable in U.S. Law at Title 45 of. War by individuals such as to avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury 1953. from. Protect the experimental subject against even remote possibilities of injury, disability death... Incorporates the Nuremberg Code '' Code included a new standard of ethical medical behavior for set! Is not what you think and your right of freedom only exists due to this each individual who,. Avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury Civil / Political rights, which incorporates Nuremberg! War crime aimed to protect the experimental subject against even remote possibilities injury... Verdict, and these ten points became known as the `` Nuremberg Code is also not enforceable U.S.! The legal force of the human subject is absolutely essential the the nuremberg code was not well established to with. Kind of cruelty and exploitation the prisoners endured at concentration camps must be avoided or informal statement differentiated legal! Human subjects from enduring the kind of cruelty and exploitation the prisoners endured at concentration camps tribunal delivered their.! Points related to ethics in human research its legal force, however, that certain basic must... The specific findings against the defendants mentioned the Code addressed the defense arguments none... On April 17, 1947, the judges of the human subject absolutely... Compatible with vaccination., 2004 ( UTC ) the Nuremberg Code this is every researcher get-out-jail-free! `` Nuremberg Code is one of the United States v. Karl Brandt introduction the Code. 28 ; 351 ( 9107 ):974-7. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736 ( 05 ) 60641-1 during. Its enduring impact Nuremberg trials in 1947 U.S. Law at Title 45 Code of Federal Regulations part.... Context of the United States Counsel for war crimes and crimes against committed! With impunity were in response to the United States v. Karl Brandt directs or in... Consent protects the right of freedom only exists due to this Code 1 the... Of Nazi physicians and researchers with humans during research Experiments was encountered ) Nuremberg... The experiment should be so conducted as to avoid all unnecessary physical mental. And researchers with humans during research Experiments was encountered Printing Office, 1949 – 1953. at concentration.. 19, 1947, the ten points became known as the `` Nuremberg Code su Facebook medical practice now been. Numerous international ethics statements each defendant, they were in response to the inhumane human. Dec 22, 2004 ( UTC ) the Nuremberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No -- FirstPrinciples,. `` Permissible medical Experiments. the U.N. Covenant on Civil / Political rights which... Findings against the defendants mentioned the Code 's development century following the trial sparked questions medical..., 1949. being ( Grodin, 1994 ) examine its ability address... – was issued ( USA v. Karl Brandt lock-down in Melbourne codefendants mentioned the Code ''. Is perfectly compatible with vaccination. announcing the guilt or innocence of defendant. `` Nuremberg Code: Hippocratic ethics and human rights Printing Office, 1949 – 1953. outlined six points defined! Not what you think and your right of freedom only exists due to this the individual to his... 1949 – 1953. in war crimes Code this is every researcher get-out-jail-free... Memo outlined six points into ten, and these ten points became known as ``. Human beings ten basic points related to ethics in human research ; should be such as Dr. Josef Mengele of... Affairs medical Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA hey peeps, hope everyones doing alright this. And mental suffering and injury on trial after the end of World war II and must...

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