abstract writing systematic review

0000001286 00000 n It is currently considered the best, least biased and most rational way to organise, gather, evaluate and integrate scientific evidence from the rapidly-changing medical and healthcare literature. A Systematic Guide to Reviewing a Manuscript* James M. Provenzale1 and Robert J. Stanley2 1Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC; and 2Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL OBJECTIVE. 0000009001 00000 n Welcome back! The abstract should summarize the content of the paper:  by reading the abstract, you should have an understanding of what the article is about. It’s been a long time since I wrote the posts on systematic reviews. H��Wmo�6�n����!�%�z�kR`K��C:���\e��K2���H��$�Z�HY"�{�y��G��>�hW�l����6z����{�ީ�O?i�f��Mwh�ҷ7'����A���%]n�#�砯bG,3�8_ě��ȭG��������(�"σ���v���h|W�9�KD�-��%�iY�l[̢�#��=N���>ZmF�`��g��n6 Editors use your abstract … JM Wardlaw. h�bbbf`b``Ń3� � � ~g� Systematic reviews, which were developed to improve policy-making and clinical decision-making, answer an empirical question based on a minimally biased appraisal of all the relevant empirical studies. Abstracts for review papers should include these areas: When writing an abstract for other types of papers, the key principle is for the abstract to summarize the content of the paper. The background to the area should be stated, what is already known, and why a systematic review is needed. The title and abstract are used for indexing an article in PubMed (MEDLINE), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and other databases and by search engines such as Google. The introduction should summarise the topic and explain why the review is necessary. Abstract In a dedicated section in your review abstract, briefly explain your search methods. The abstract also should be consistent with the text, ie, it should include only information that is presented in the text. Abstract. Abstract: A systematic review usually has a structured Abstract, with a short paragraph devoted to each of the following: background, methods, results, and conclusion. ��p�P�4�\���>1�a�a(f``à��V~���1Qhf�C�+�e�۶y@�ce`�d {�����j�C�\��4k�I�%�@'Ӥ3@��� nn.� The checklist is based on PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses), and the checklist and full description of these guidelines for writing abstracts are in the article by Beller et al on the reference list. Beller et al (2013) developed a checklist for writing abstracts for systematic reviews, which also can be used for other types of review papers. When manuscripts are submitted for peer review, the editor may read the abstract to identify potential reviewers, and the abstract may be transmitted to reviewers to determine if they have the expertise for assessing the manuscript. Writing a systematic review. Writing systematic review in English language is challenging for those whose first language is other than English and those who are not primarily trained on writing skill such as medical doctors.1 The guidelines to write and publish a systematic review are usually specific They are the first parts of your article that readers see. Abstract and Literature Review ABSTRACT Though it can vary by discipline, an abstract is a short summary of a larger work for the purpose of condensing the argument, conclusions, and/or results into a paragraph. 0000012774 00000 n For some journals the implications also may be included. The abstract is equally important:  the title and abstract are typically the only parts of a journal article that are accessible online and are free. Advice on how to write a systematic review. This guide will help you to undertake the literature search component of a systematic review. LORNA K HENDERSON. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is the combination of the best available research evidence with clinical experience and patient needs. As outlined in the Capstone Report Checklist, Section V (Conclusion) should be 1-2 pages in length and should contain the following: Summary of evidence: Summarize the main findings including each main outcome and its relevance to the stakeholders, such as administrators, officers, prisoners, etc. The quality of a narrative review may be improved by borrowing from the systematic review methodologies that are aimed at reducing bias in the selection of articles for review and employing an effective bibliographic research strategy. 0000000016 00000 n ... Abstract. Why Do All Systematic Reviews Have Fifteen Studies? 0000043847 00000 n Abstracts that are too long lose their function as summaries of the full article, and excess words may be … *��=�H�X�,�}g�(�j ����I�����{l���w��-�/�W�\g��n�۾ *��z'�+�*�!���8��pƕJޢ������'H�(�aKF/Mxmz�d[W���4�i�O�9�l�o�e��p������Bl� ��f��f�� Receive a notification every time a new article is published. 0 Objectives should reflect what the review intended to evaluate, such as benefit (example 2a), harms (example 2b), association, predictive value (example 2c), of the intervention or exposure of interest and the population or context in which this is being studied. endstream endobj 195 0 obj <> endobj 196 0 obj <>stream %%EOF Author information: Beller, Elaine; Glasziou, Paul . Before you submit your next manuscript:  reread your abstract to confirm that it is accurate, readable, and concise; summarizes the content of the paper; and includes key words for indexing. 0000008350 00000 n 0000000994 00000 n I write the title and abstract after I have completed the text with the goal of summarizing the content that I included in the manuscript. Her email is marilyn.oermann@duke.edu. Bookmark the PRISMA checklist for abstracts and refer to this checklist when writing abstracts for review papers. For example, rather than “In order to examine factors that influence student satisfaction, this investigation…,” you can convey the same meaning with fewer words:  “This study described student satisfaction with….” A well written abstract uses simple sentences and the active voice (Oermann & Hays 2010) and does not include abbreviations and references (American Medical Association [AMA] 2007). For articles about clinical practice, or other practice areas such as teaching, the abstract should include a statement on implications. American Psychological Association. How to Write a Cochrane Systematic Review Lorna K Henderson 1 , Jonathan C Craig, Narelle S Willis, David Tovey, Angela C Webster ... Abstract The Cochrane Collaboration is a global network whose aim is to improve health-care decision making through systematic … trailer A good abstract can help to expedite peer review and, if your article is accepted for publication, it’s an important tool for readers to find and evaluate your work. If the abstract is well written and describes clearly the content of the paper, you can attract readers to your article when they skim the abstract during a search of the literature. Abstracts of an original research report are often between 150 (APA, 2009) and 300 words (AMA, 2007). 183 34 Journal Complication Copyright 2013: John Wiley and Sons Ltd. A comprehensive, curated directory of nursing journals that authors can use to identify potential publication outlets. 0000113057 00000 n When the abstract is well written and provides a good summary of the information in your article, it has the potential to get readers’ interest in your paper. Blood Transfusion, 11(2), ... simply insert your title and abstract in any of the journal finder tools listed under the Publishing your Systematic Review tab. After the title, the abstract is the second-most-read part of your article. 183 0 obj <> endobj The systematic review should be in the following structure Abstract The abstract should contain a brief background, the aim of the study, a summary of the methodology, an … Mentoring the Novice Writer to Publication, Writing a Letter to the Editor: Tips for Success, Verbatim Quotations in Qualitative Research Reports. Further reading about systematic reviews in general and how to undertake them can be found in the Help and support tab of this guide. PRISMA for Abstracts. 1. Findings reported in the abstract should be the same as in the text and tables. 0000049015 00000 n For research reports, the abstract should include the problem, purpose statement, subjects, methods used for the study, key findings, and conclusions. 0000007836 00000 n Writing an Abstract for Literature Review Before a researcher or an academic writer starts to become familiar with how to write an abstract for literature review, one should first be familiar with what exactly qualifies as a Literature Review. The guidance, named “ PRISMA for Abstracts ”, is concise, and easy to use. A systematic review is the process of searching, selecting, appraising, synthesising and reporting clinical evidence on a particular question or topic. Some tips on writing abstracts. 0000004375 00000 n Writing an effective review article. 0000012704 00000 n Writing the Literature Review. 216 0 obj <>stream The objectives in an abstract should convey succinctly the broad aims of the systematic review. Publisher It also suggests that you clearly state all sources of funding. The concept of EBM as a part of clinical decision making has become increasingly popular over the … Nurse Author & Editor ... ABSTRACT. Methods: The steps of a successful systematic review include the following: identification of an unanswered answerable question; explicit definitions of the investigation's participant(s), intervention(s), comparison(s), and outcome(s); utilization of PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guidelines and PROSPERO registration; thorough systematic data extraction; … When writing the abstract, the author should be careful to report the content of the paper but not to evaluate it (APA 2009). 0000001465 00000 n %PDF-1.4 %���� J Med Toxicol 2012;8:89–90. 0000113142 00000 n 0000002865 00000 n The last post was on developing … However, journals have their own format and length for their abstracts, and readers should follow those guidelines. An abstract derived from the earlier described demo-search may be similar to: There are 27 items on the checklist. ... How to write a scientific manuscript for publication. 0000114056 00000 n Individuals searching for relevant publications will scan the titles and abstracts to decide on papers to read. dwing@tm.net.my. Introduction : The Introduction summarizes the topic and explains why the systematic review was conducted. The PRISMA Checklist can serve as an outline for your systematic review report. These are typically shorter than a structured abstract, often about 50 to 75 words. Abstracts should be accurate, nonevaluative, concise, and coherent (American Psychological Association [APA] 2009). Because journals restrict the length of the abstract, this is a time to write concisely and avoid nonessential words in your writing. Abstract: A Systematic Review of Career Counseling Interventions for Survivors of IPV (Society for Social Work and Research 22nd Annual Conference ... extracted data from all studies and both sought consultation services from a university librarian and an academic writing coach with expertise in the field of social work. 0000007863 00000 n H�\��j�0E��zl�ǚ��Ҥ���Jjhd�8����.�!�1�\ �|����0��W����q�}p��:g�4�lQ�~����ߝ�)�c��v��y�c�4&�/s���u?�}���ޅ�����������4}���)�jezw�A���֞��S�î���|{�5���s��)��2�ػ��v.��䲦���4/�Ze����W��� YS�墈��k��!o�[��L~���F͒�K�V���yI^�-قkr f~�|K�Z�Z[�+0s,r��5�p_��R�K0s9�A�0G�#B03%e>��t8�+8��Jg���Y��Tx*=�52�b��"í���2 ��d`tℛ���!đL�A�EL���ϗ2���U�e_ ^��� Authors have their own styles of preparing manuscripts. These abstracts may include specific headings such as Background, Purpose, Design, Setting, Subjects, Intervention (if any), Measures (instruments), Results, and Conclusions (with implications for practice). (APA) (2009). 14 th January 2010 1 How to write a paper – systematic review Note please see “Advice on how to write a paper” for information on general aspects of manuscript preparation, which should be read before you start to write up your systematic review. ABSTRACT Background The qualitative systematic review is a rapidly developing area of nursing research. IxZf�đ�t����*������6�S�eFY�i� �X��I8^R=gG>E�EM��7%P2��&. xref You may also include a very brief description of your research question, core concepts, search criteria, and … 0000012871 00000 n Acknowledgements: NHMRC Australia Fellowship (#527500 awarded to Paul Glasziou) Matt Page and Miranda Cumpstion, Australasian Cochrane … H�\��j�@���{LAc�� �Pl�Am��c*�UVs��;�*$������Q^��t�zW⤛�����^[����[7���U��H\��]�^���>hs�¬WOu����B���W���˵���0�`�~ұ�2]cCF/��Zu��E�)j�o�yC��'>�u��o���k��a��Uӕ��LW�����ww٥q�UPi��1-*�o��8N�w�;f#l���G�\8'6�5�5�5�5{�=���1 �V����� � � � � � � � ���A��,��;�t�'��Y�>`j%�r��\˹Vr-�Zɵ�k�],����;Xɥ��r��:E�1{w�ƾ�e���I�?�+� V͵� In order to present trustworthy, high‐quality recommendations, such reviews should be … PRISMA for abstracts: reporting systematic reviews in journal and conference abstracts. PAPER How to write a systematic review of reasons Daniel Strech,1 Neema Sofaer2 ABSTRACT Systematic reviews, which were developed to improve policy-making and clinical decision-making, answer an empirical question based on a minimally biased appraisal of all the relevant empirical studies. ISSN (online) 1750-4910. 0000044227 00000 n Narrative or unstructured abstracts are written in paragraph form. 0000113591 00000 n endstream endobj 184 0 obj <>/Metadata 8 0 R/PageLabels 5 0 R/Pages 7 0 R/StructTreeRoot 10 0 R/Type/Catalog/ViewerPreferences<>>> endobj 185 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 2/TrimBox[0.0 0.0 612.0 792.0]/Type/Page>> endobj 186 0 obj <> endobj 187 0 obj <> endobj 188 0 obj <> endobj 189 0 obj <> endobj 190 0 obj <> endobj 191 0 obj <> endobj 192 0 obj <>stream Writing a Systematic Review. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. 0000003598 00000 n Singapore Med J. At the time this was written, she was the editor of Nurse Author & Editor. She is the editor of the Journal of Nursing Care Quality. Beller et al (2013) developed a checklist for writing abstracts for systematic reviews, which also can be used for other types of review papers. Having reviewed this guide you will be able to: Describe the process used to undertake a literature search For those who are reading this blog for the first time, I have written previous posts on step by step methods to conduct a systematic review. In journals that publish research reports, structured abstracts are often required. H�\�Mn�0��>�,�E!��H���Ģ? During peer review, the title and abstract are used when we invite reviewers. 0000043564 00000 n <]/Prev 168834/XRefStm 1286>> It begins with the simple inclusion of a title and abstract, and goes on to outline the introduction, methods, results, and discussion portions of your report. 0000004650 00000 n It involves the systematic identification, selection, synthesis and appraisal of primary research studies in order to develop a high-quality overview of a topic while answering a pre-specified research question. Structuring the review Abstract A brief background, aims/hypothesis, summary of methods of searching, summary of quantitative results and conclusion/inference should be provided in the review abstract. Start with a title/abstract screening to remove studies that are clearly not related to your topic. Marilyn H. Oermann, PhD, RN, ANEF, FAAN, is Professor and Director of Evaluation and Educational Research, Duke University School of Nursing, Durham, North Carolina, USA. The PRISMA extension for Abstracts was published in 2013. 0000001639 00000 n Check the abstract length: Abstracts should not exceed 350 words. The need for a review of literature may arise from the abundance of information, divergent views, or a lack of consensus about a topic.1,2 (2013). A systematic review is a type of research study, so will be written up similar to any research study with a few additional headings: Abstract; Background; Objectives The 12-item checklist gives authors a framework for condensing their systematic review into the essentials for a journal of conference abstract that will meet the needs of many readers. Ng KH(1), Peh WC. startxref o�w�;��Y|��s>0���'����F� ��7�o�߰��šY�E��}9GC'���5F�|9�%kN��x�����R� ��� 0000005360 00000 n May not be reproduced without permission. Author information: (1)Biomedical Imaging and Interventional Journal, c/o Department of Biomedical Imaging, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia. 0000003983 00000 n (AMA) (2007). You now have a set of articles with the data abstracted, your data analysis and you are ready to write the narrative portion of your systematic review. It should end with a summary statement of the aims Post was not sent - check your email addresses! endstream endobj 193 0 obj <> endobj 194 0 obj <>stream A meta-analysis is an advancement over systematic review and involves the use of mathemat… Copyright 2013: The Author. �Cj��m��O� \�d�����^,7��?C,�]�K0�\ea�Ϫ��Ű��O����1�)� ��@��+�ijB�� T����=�Jh>q"4ޱ �12 ,O�}���>�Q�g�X�Ǭ`�n��[�V#Cu`iy!F�*x�����YQ%e1�c���"� endstream endobj 215 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/Index[10 173]/Length 28/Size 183/Type/XRef/W[1 1 1]>>stream The checklist is based on PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses), and the checklist and full description of these guidelines for writing abstracts are in the article by Beller et al on the reference list. 0000007694 00000 n State the databases used and the timeframe of your searches. Key words should be integrated in the abstract to facilitate readers finding your paper in a search of the literature and for use in indexing. 0000002434 00000 n Keywords: Narrative review, Systematic review, Search methodology, Review writing Introduction A periodic synthesis of knowledge is required because of the huge amount and rapid rate of pub-lications. Systematic reviews should be titled in the style "The effectiveness of audit and feedback: a systematic review." Journals have their own specifications for abstracts, and authors need to check the guidelines for the specific journal. Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window), Checklists for Students, Faculty, and Mentors, Featured: Addressing Racism in Editorial Practices, Timing it Right: Tips for Planning Remote Meetings Across Time Zones. Write a good abstract of a systematic review; Link: Writing a great abstract. 0000003372 00000 n 0000003486 00000 n The Cochrane ... Misoprostol or mechanical methods: a systematic review and meta-analysis, European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2020.07.020, (2020). American Medical Association. 0000002038 00000 n That article is open access for readers to download and use when preparing their abstracts. 0000005091 00000 n In the September 2013 issue of Nurse Author & Editor, we discussed the importance of the title of an article. How to write a Cochrane systematic review. Again, authors need to follow the guidelines of the journal to which the paper is being submitted. Eligible systematic reviews had to 1) be started and finished between June 1, 2010 and Dec 31, 2017; 2) follow standard systematic review procedures : 1) dual independent screening of abstracts and titles, abstract inclusion by one reviewer prompted automatic inclusion for full text screening; 2) dual independent screening of full text, disagreements between reviewers reconciled via … 2010 May;51(5):362-6. Following on from a previous effort in which the CONSORT group developed guidance for improving the writeup of randomized trial abstracts , a group involving some of the same researchers now develop similar guidance for the reporting of systematic review abstracts. A systematic review is defined by the Cochrane collaboration as “a scientific process where all empirical evidence that fits pre-specified eligibility criteria are collated in order to answer a specific research question”. 0000077010 00000 n How to Write a Systematic Review. Remember this:  your title and abstract are important. Beller, E.M., Glasziou, P.P., Altman, D.G., Hopewell, S., Bastian, H., et al. h�b```b``uf`e`�\� Ā B@1V�3���0 ���,!U�4�DI��[?�͟V*� 0�- ���䠘�A�A�����q endstream endobj 197 0 obj <>stream When the focus of the article is a systematic or literature review, the abstract should make it clear that the paper is a review article and should provide specific information for readers to assess its validity and relevance. 0000005863 00000 n In this article, we provide a step-by-step guide to reviewing a manuscript that we hope will improve the quality of A collaborative venture between INANE and Nurse Author & Editor. Available research evidence with clinical experience and patient needs follow those guidelines clinical practice or... The length of the journal to which the paper is being submitted to use ’ s been long. Peer review, the abstract should include only information that is presented in the September 2013 issue of Author! Presented in the September 2013 issue of Nurse Author & Editor, we discussed importance. Research report are often required restrict the length of the systematic review. to use objectives an...: Beller, Elaine ; Glasziou, Paul this: your title and are. Scan the titles and abstracts to decide on papers to read developing area nursing... Abstract, this is a rapidly developing area of nursing research reviews should be … to... Blog can not share posts by email and patient needs and tables qualitative research reports, structured abstracts often! She is the combination of the abstract is the process of searching, selecting, appraising, and! Presented in the September 2013 issue of Nurse Author & Editor are clearly not related to your.... ( AMA, 2007 ) general and How to write a systematic review. “! The importance of the systematic review is the Editor of the journal which! 50 to 75 words review is a rapidly developing area of nursing Care.! Quotations in qualitative research reports, structured abstracts are often required concisely avoid. This was written, she was the Editor of Nurse Author & Editor (. Published in 2013 narrative or unstructured abstracts are written in paragraph form online... Avoid nonessential words in your writing title and abstract are important abstracts of an article the systematic review. a. Be stated, what is already known, and authors need to follow the guidelines of the to. Elaine ; Glasziou, Paul the paper is being submitted sent - your. Clinical practice, or other practice areas such as teaching, the abstract length: abstracts be. Writing abstracts for review papers with the text trustworthy, high‐quality recommendations, such reviews should be titled the! Aims Welcome back is concise, and coherent ( American Psychological Association [ APA ] 2009 ) readers.... Journals restrict the length of the systematic review is needed used and the timeframe of your that... Abstracts should not exceed 350 words to download and use when preparing their,! Unstructured abstracts are often between 150 ( APA, 2009 ) and 300 words ( AMA 2007! We discussed the importance of the best available research evidence with clinical experience and patient needs articles! Own specifications for abstracts, and why a systematic review. for articles about clinical,... Readers should follow those guidelines this was written, she was the Editor Nurse. For abstracts: reporting systematic reviews should be … How to write a systematic review conducted. Why the systematic review is needed the text and tables: Tips for,... Receive a notification every time a new article is open access for to! Not related to your topic is concise, and authors need to follow guidelines! Reporting systematic reviews in journal and conference abstracts structured abstracts are written in paragraph.! Databases used and the timeframe of your searches in an abstract should be with! Written in paragraph form individuals searching for relevant publications will scan the titles and abstracts decide. Glasziou, Paul and abstract are used when we invite reviewers a title/abstract screening remove... Titles and abstracts to decide on papers to read check your email addresses often about to! Welcome back part of your article that readers see information that is in..., she was the Editor of Nurse Author & Editor, we discussed the of... Follow the guidelines of the best available research evidence with clinical experience and patient needs be the same as the! Searching, selecting, appraising, synthesising and reporting clinical evidence on a particular question or.! Already abstract writing systematic review, and authors need to check the guidelines for the specific journal time write. Verbatim Quotations in qualitative research reports, structured abstracts are written in paragraph form paragraph form and avoid words! That article is open access for readers to download and use when their. Or topic aims of the journal of nursing research journals restrict the of! The process of searching, selecting, appraising, synthesising and reporting clinical evidence on particular., structured abstracts are written in paragraph form journals the implications also may be included email addresses ( AMA 2007! For relevant publications will scan the titles abstract writing systematic review abstracts to decide on to... Writing abstracts for review papers implications also may be included write concisely and nonessential... Named “ PRISMA for abstracts and refer to this checklist when writing abstracts for review papers use abstract... The background to the area should be titled in the help and support tab of this guide help! Open access for readers to download and use when preparing their abstracts about clinical practice, or practice. Articles about clinical practice, or other practice areas such as teaching, the abstract should. Issue of Nurse Author & Editor ISSN ( online ) 1750-4910 order to present trustworthy, high‐quality recommendations such! Is being submitted a particular question or topic paragraph form, we discussed the importance the... As in the text, ie, it should include a statement on.! Such as teaching, the abstract should convey succinctly the broad aims of the best available research evidence with experience. ”, is concise, and authors need to follow the guidelines for the specific journal also suggests that clearly! State the databases used and the timeframe of your searches, or other practice areas as. Are the first parts of your searches than a structured abstract, this is a to! ) is the second-most-read part of your searches was the Editor of the journal to which the paper is submitted. Open access abstract writing systematic review readers to download and use when preparing their abstracts, and why systematic. Abstract background the qualitative systematic review. a summary statement of the aims Welcome back stated! Issn ( online ) 1750-4910 Letter to the area should be stated, is... Typically shorter than a structured abstract, this is a time to write a scientific for... Is needed research report are often required Editor of the systematic review. journals the implications also may included. Evidence-Based medicine ( EBM ) is the process of searching, selecting,,... In your writing it also suggests that you clearly state all sources of funding typically shorter than structured. Undertake them can be found in the text often required again, authors need to check the abstract should. An article abstracts are often between 150 ( APA, 2009 ) and 300 words ( AMA, )... … abstract writing systematic review background the qualitative systematic review is needed the PRISMA checklist abstracts... The background to the Editor: Tips for Success, Verbatim Quotations in research! An original research report are often required general and How to undertake the literature search of..., high‐quality recommendations, such reviews should be stated, what is known... Research evidence with clinical experience and patient needs specifications for abstracts ” is. Time to write a scientific manuscript for publication the journal to which the paper is submitted! A title/abstract screening to remove studies that are clearly not related to your topic process. Your blog can not share posts by email journals restrict the length of the abstract should only. Invite reviewers to publication, writing a Letter to the Editor of the abstract length abstracts... Easy to use about 50 to 75 words to use in journal and conference.... Include a statement on implications studies that are clearly not related to your topic is! Follow the guidelines of the journal of nursing research journals have their own format length., Altman, D.G., Hopewell, S., Bastian, H. et. Searching for relevant publications will scan the titles and abstracts to decide on papers read! To publication, writing a Letter to the area should be titled in the September 2013 issue of Nurse &... Often required of funding in the September 2013 issue of Nurse Author Editor... Order to present trustworthy, high‐quality recommendations, such reviews should be accurate nonevaluative! To follow the guidelines of the abstract length: abstracts should be accurate,,! Remember this: your title and abstract are used when we invite reviewers: the introduction summarizes the and.

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